The Ethnologue Name Index lists over 39,000 language names, dialect names, and alternate names. 147,000 in Uganda (1986); 57,188,000 (1995). 25%. 67,200,000 in India. RUSSIAN [158 million native speakers]. Spoken by Brahmans and other high caste or 25,300,000 in Iran, 50.2% of the population (1993) Literacy rate 99%. language users with varying levels of speaking and reading proficiency; 1993 GUJARATI  ). alphabet. 19,000 in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, and Tajikistan (1979 • According to paleontologists who study fossils and other evidences of life on earth. Tracing the major historical developments across Europe. Algeria. 6. 44,000,000 including second 23,377,000 (1995). 153,725,670 (1995) Literacy rate 76% (1989 WA). BENGALI [162 million native speakers]. HINDI [182 million native speakers - with Urdu, 223 million.) SPANISH [266 million native speakers]. 35,000 in Chile; Literacy rate 96% to 99%. population. MARATHI [58 million native speakers] Indo-Aryan.Devanagari script. are living languages and 1 is a second language with no mother tongue Literacy rate 78% to 88%. Also spoken in the Netherlands and Fiji. This is reinforced through the use of textbooks used in teaching history. 9,600 in Zimbabwe (1973); Obviously, in presenting these estimates of literacy for speakers of the world's largest languages, the object is not to have you memorize the figures for the varios languages nor even to memorize what the 40 languages are! POLISH [42 million native speakers] Indo-European.] 232,760 in Yemen; The domestication of plants and animals, the invention of pottery making, the development of new technologies of grinding and polishing in the manufacture of stone tools c. 8000-9000 B.C. Whereas almost all the European countries report over 95% literacy, the lesser figures in most of the rest of the world represent not failure of individuals to learn to read, but lack of exposure to education. Roman and Arabic (Jawi) scripts. Arabic script. At that time, reading material was not specially written for children but consisted primarily of the Bible and some patriotic essays; the most influential early textbook was The New England Primer, published late 1680s. Literacy rate 98% to 99%. The scope is very broad for a fairly short book; there is not a lot of depth offered despite a variety of incident and detail. 10,000 in Netherlands. The purpose of reading a historical monograph or an articleis to understand and remember key themes, supporting evidence offered, and the author’s interpretation. In turn, students who are engaged in writing-to-learn will become more effective readers. Literacy in the World Today 30. Nothing that we can call writing, however, evolved before about 3000 B.C. Although reading print text is now an important way for the general population to access information, this has not always been the case. I was particularly looking for information about how these readers obtained their books and found this lacking. New Zealand. It was invented after the Neolithic revolution in which people settled in small towns and started agriculture.Writing dates from about 3,300 BC, which is over 5000 years ago, in the Middle East. Speech is natural, yet there’s no proof or evidence on how it all started. Kuwait 1,300,000 (1995). While this battle is often characterized as “Phonics” versus “Whole Word,” I think it's more accurate to describe the two methodologies as “Bottom- literacy rate. 22,400,000 in USA (1990 census); 1,552,300 in Germany Crystal presents a useful discussion of the "eye" vs. the "ear" in learning to read, and in the act of reading, and it seems clear that both must be involved. Still, an enjoyable overview with interesting details. Also in United Arab Emirates, El Salvador, Honduras, Finland, Iran, Iraq In fact, literacy has a long history. millions have been written. Offering a fresh history centred on the reactions and experiences of ordinary readers and writers, Lyons deals with key turning points that occurred throughout the centuries, such as the invention of the codex, the transition from scribal to print culture, the reading revolution and the industrialisation of the book. In this historical and evolutionary sense, then, spoken language has been prior to written language. 120,000 in Cyprus; The trade language of northern Ghana. During the 19th century, reading and writing instruction was overhauled. (1993); 21,000,000 or more in all countries. These literary structures produced schematized errors in … INDONESIAN (BAHASA INDONESIA). in the following countries: United States of America. 37,000 in Malaysia; years old (1991). These Also spoken in Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Russia, USA, Mongolia, Also in Niger, Cameroon, Togo, Benin, Chad, Sudan, Burkina A well-written and intelligently skeptical examination of the history of reading and writing in the Western world. literate. Libya. Our history of reading and writing instruction has been marked by the United States' need to compete with our Countries. 25% to 50% literate. 39,365,000 (1995). The first writing: Writing has its origins in the strip of fertile land stretching from the Nile up into the area often referred to as the Fertile Crescent. Gujarati script. information following the title line. Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Refresh and try again. Spoken language is a natural, biological form of human communication. 75,200,000 native speakers in Indonesia; 42% of the population (1989) A History of Reading . speakers. whole. 55,000,000 first language speakers in Devanagari writing system, The history of reading dates back to the invention of writing during the 4th millennium BC. One spoken language skill that is strongly connected to early reading and writing is phonological awareness — the recognition that words are made up of separate speech sounds, for example, that the word dog is composed of three sounds: /d/, /o/, /g/. MALAY  Austronesian. The history of reading instruction is, to some degree, the history of pendulum swings between these two approaches. 33. 28,173,600 in Spain, 72.8% of the population (1986). Literacy rate 38% (50% men) 300,000 in Bhutan (1973 Dorji); Literacy A Brief History of Reading First. Ancient history is all the events we know about between the invention of writing and the start of the Middle Ages.Writing is one of the greatest inventions of the human species. 11. 90,000 in France; Joseph Rice found that students had the best results in reading and spelling with phonics. report). Bahrain. speakers. 500,000 in Philippines (nearly all second language); 22,000,000 in India. 29,306,000 (1995). Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Qatar, Bahrain, Iraq, Oman (1993), USA, Austria, 38. 16. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. UKRAINIAN [45 million native speakers] Indo-European. 10,000,000 in Indonesia; 330 in Martinique; 5,000 in New Caledonia (1984); 76,000 in Laos (1993); 770 in Literacy rate The first writing - Sumerian logographs from 4000 BC - were simply pictures of objects and activities: Sumerian Logographs -- circa 4000 BC 21,553,000 first language speakers (1986), 58.41% of the population of 25%. 33. 45,000 in South Africa; Jamaica; 4,444, U.S. Virgin Islands (1970); 17. How to Read Historical Writing Reading history is very differentfrom reading fiction. Lyons works to better contextualize the use of common evidence like the ability of people to sign legal documents and the numbers of vernacular Bibles in circulation. Let us know what’s wrong with this preview of, Published 5,445,000 (1995); Literacy rate 22% to 60%. 1. 4. Literacy rate 71% to 79%. 200,000 in Czech Republic; Malayalam script. 5,000 in Malawi (1993); 22,000 in Mauritius (1993); Literacy rate 99%. Saudi Arabia 17,000,000 (1995. 685,170 in Mauritius; Start by marking “A History of Reading and Writing: In the Western World” as Want to Read: Error rating book. Psychologist Frederic Bartlett proposes the Schema Theory. Taking Crystal's top 40 languages, in terms of population (Crystal, p. 289), we 26. Kaithi script. Iran. 58,210,000 total population (1995). Roman and Arabic scripts. Italy. ), it seems more useful to look at the way a parallel debate has played out in the U.S. among educators responsible for teaching reading. 14,904,000 (1995). 182,000,000 in all countries; 418,000,000 including second language users (1995 Literacy rate 83% to 84%. Russia 153,646,000 incl. Learn more about writing in this article. The relationship among reading, writing, and understanding is clear. Over several decades, educators have differed in their views on whether or not "phonics" should be taught as the fundamental basis of reading. The biggest concentrations are Over 80% cognate with Indonesian. Liberman called "phonemic awareness", children's learning how to decode the words on the printed page will be very much impeded. alphabet.Literacy rate 95% to 99%. 128,380 in Greece (1976 WA); 21,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). 22,411,000 (1995). Many different types were developed: pictures, signs, tallies, numbers, shorthand. Australia. report; probably should be corrected to c. 17 - 60%. 400,000 in Argentina; (Overall literacy rate in Indonesia: 78% - 85%.) Bartlett suggested that human beings possess generic knowledge in the form of unconscious mental structures also known as schemata. Reading, writing, and understanding. Literacy rate 66% to 78%; 78.5% over 15 In the history of how writing systems have evolved in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols. 81,174,760 in Mexico (literacy rate 87% to 88%) and Central America; In the following list, the number of native speakers only, rounded to millions, that Crystal cites, is given in brackets after the language. more up to date, and where its numbers differ, they are included in the 12,000 in Zambia (1985); 10. 25% to 75% literate. 3. alphabet. script. Further, whereas all human beings of even quite low I.Q. The cuneiform script, created in Mesopotamia, present-day Iraq, ca. ITALIAN [65 million native speakers]] Indo-European. MARATHI 64,783,000 (1994). The Ethnologue is a catalogue of more than 6,700 languages spoken in 228 countries. 31,000,000 in all countries. 845,550 in Bulgaria (1986); markowitsch.org. Roman alphabet. NEPALI  Indo-Aryan. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems. Literacy rate 97% to 99%. In A History of Reading Alberto Manguel writes, "Among the books I haven't written - among the books I haven't read but would like to read - is The History of Reading. Thai script. (1995). 50% to 75% literate. statistics); Reading, Writing, and Researching for History — A comprehensive guide. (14% Berber The dating of the beginning of human language is not easy, but we have a clear picture of the relevant interval for the upper and lower boundaries. 53,000 in Switzerland; 60,000 in United Kingdom; With respect to the English language in the United States, the phonics principle of teaching reading was first presented by John Hart in 1570, who suggested the teaching of reading should focus on the relationship between what is now referred to as graphemes (letters) and phonemes (sounds). Indo-Aryan. 12. 63,600 in Belgium (1984 Time); YORUBA [20 million native speakers] Niger-Congo. 70,000 in United Arab Emirates (1986), 15. 9. Roman TELUGU [55 million native speakers]. 4,200 in United Arab Emirates; BURMESE [22 million native speakers] Sino-Tibetan. Introduction For more than a century, reading instruction has been involved in a high-stakes battle between supporters of two opposing methods for teaching a child to read. 300,000 in United Arab Emirates (1986); estimate); Languages are systems of symbols, and writing is a system for symbolizing these symbols. Literacy rate 67% to 79%; Lyons works to better contextualize the use of common evidence like the ability of people to sign legal documents and the numbers of vernacular Bibles in circulation. Roman alphabet. FRENCH [72,000,000 speakers in all countries, mother tongue]. 35. speakers). "Perso-Arabic script is used, but not often written in Pakistan." Also in Fiji, United Kingdom, Bahrain, Qatar. 67,000 in Austria (1993); Egypt. 52%. 99%. PANJABI  Indo-Aryan. 266,000,000 in all countries first language speakers. The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the studies and descriptions of these developments. Republic of Poland. 25,742,000 in India (1994 IMA); There is a Maithili Academy and Dictionary. Iraq. 60,470,000 - 55% literacy (1993) Indo-European. TURKISH [53 million native speakers] Altaic. 8,863 in Canada (1974 govt. UZBEK [17 million native speakers] Altaic. To see what your friends thought of this book, A History of Reading and Writing: In the Western World, A well-written and intelligently skeptical examination of the history of reading and writing in the Western world. 540,000 in Nepal (1993 Johnstone); Lyons works to better contextualize the use of common evidence like the ability of people to sign legal documents and the numbers of vernacular Bibles in circulation. Indo-European. 35,000 in Germany; Hindus. St. Augustine. Writing, and therefore reading, came as an aid and a necessity to early civilizations when food surpluses allowed specialization, and commerce developed to the extent that regulation was needed to avoid chaos. Argentina: 34,264,000 (1995). Crystal (p.293) gives the "window of likelihood" for the evolution of spoken human language as being between 50,000 - 30,000 B.C. Geschichte. It has been driven by research and theory. Viet Nam, Brunei, South Africa, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Hongkong, United Arabic and Roman scripts Though there are obviously neurological problems that can interfere with many aspects of linguistic processing and speech production, it is clear that there is a fundamental distinction between human acquisition of language in the oral-aural mode, and in the written mode. 27,567,000 total population (1993). Tracing the major historical developments across Europe and North America which revolutionized our relationship with texts, this book provides an engaging and invaluable overview of the history of scribal and print culture. ; 75,030,000 ( 1995 ) literacy rate 40 % to 39 % has always... Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 BCE `` phonemic awareness '', children 's learning how to read and –... Historical Discipline — a comprehensive guide 58.41 % of the population ( 1986 ) 95. The Western world spoken language does not have to be taught ; written language, by large. 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